Energy spectra of Sub-Surface Velocity Fields Beneath Faraday Waves
Keywords:2D Turbulence, Faraday Waves, PTV, PIV
Faraday waves form on the surface of a fluid which is subject to vertical forcing, and are researched in a large range of applications. Some examples are the formation of ordered wave patterns and the controlled walking or orbiting of droplets (Couder et al. (2005); Saylor and Kinard (2005)). Moreover, recent studies discovered the existence of a horizontal velocity field at the fluid surface, called Faraday flow, which was shown to exhibit an inverse energy cascade and thus properties of two-dimensional turbulence (von Kameke et al., 2011, 2013; Francois et al., 2013). Additionally, three-dimensionality effects have been part of recent investigations in quasi-2D flows (both electromagnetically-driven (Kelley and Ouellette, 2011; Martell et al., 2019) or produced by parametrically-excited waves (Francois et al., 2014; Xia and Francois, 2017)). Furthermore, the occurrence of an inverse cascade in thick layers is also subject of current studies on the coexistence of 2D and 3D turbulence (Biferale et al., 2012; Kokot et al., 2017; Biferale et al., 2017). By performing 2D PIV measurements at horizontal planes beneath the Faraday waves, we recently showed that pronounced three dimensional flows occur in the bulk, with much larger spatial and temporal scales than those on the surface (Colombi et al., 2021), when the system is not shallow in comparison to typical length scales of the surface flow (fluid thickness exceeding half the Faraday wavelength λF). This in turn reveals that an inverse energy cascade and aspects of a confined 2D turbulence can coexist with a three dimensional bulk flow. In this work, 2D PIV measurements of the velocity fields are carried out at a vertical cross-section xz-plane and at four distinct horizontal xy-planes at different depths in Faraday waves. The results reveal that small and fast vertical jets penetrate from the surface into the bulk with fast accelerating bursts and strong momentum transport in the z−direction. Furthermore, the fraction of flow kinetic energy in the vertical direction is found to peak inside a layer of approximately 10 mm (one Faraday wavelength) below the fluid surface.
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