Development of an Optical set-up for 3D PIV with a Large Volume
Keywords:optics, large volume, 3D PIV, laser scanning, multi-pass
Measurements of 3D volumetric velocity fields are of great theoretical interest with numerous practical applications. These measurements are essential for studying volumetric flows that do not exhibit inherent flow symmetry, such as turbulence or vortex breakdown. In the past decade, several technological innovations facilitated the emergence of 3D-PTV techniques for measuring velocity fields at kHz rate with volumes of interest up to 104 cm3 that contain 300 µm helium-filled soap bubbles. However, when a commercial laser beam with millijoule pulse-energy is expanded and shaped to fill volumes above 102 cm3 for 3D-PTV experiments with 15 µm air filled soap bubbles, one finds that the power density of the laser source is insufficient to generate a signal image. This is because the power density of the laser beam falls inversely with respect to its cross-section area and due to the quadratic dependence of Mie-scattering on the particle diameter. Here, we report of the analysis and development of two optical techniques for extending the volume of measurement in volumetric PTV. In particular, when a volume about 103 cm3 is seeded with 15 µm air-filled soap bubbles and a laser with a pulse energy of few single mJ illuminates it. The first technique uses multi reflections between two opposing parallel mirrors. The second technique is a development of laser scanning PIV for volumetric scanning: The potential to increase the scanned volume is examined by experimenting with an acousto-optic modulator for fast scanning. Furthermore, by employing an off-axis parabolic mirror, we obtain parallel beam scanning, which increases the efficiency and quality of the scanning.
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