Flow Field Study of a Top Heated Immiscible Liquid Layer Adjacent to Ice


  • Hamed Farmahini Farahani Worcester Polytechnic Institute, U.S.A
  • Tatsunori Hayashi University of Notre Dame, U.S.A
  • Hirotaka Sakaue University of Notre Dame, U.S.A
  • Ali S. Rangwala Worcester Polytechnic Institute, U.S.A




Ice melting, Surface tension, Convective flows, Density gradients


A series of experiments were conducted to investigate the flow field of a top-heated liquid fuel adjacent to an ice block. The experimental setup consisted of a borosilicate container containing an ice wall and a layer of n-heptane heated from above. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and Background Oriented Schlieren (BOS) measurements were conducted on the liquid -phase. PIV measurements showed a surface flow toward the ice caused by surface -tension forces, which is driven by the horizontal temperature gradients on the liquid surface. A recirculation zone was observed under the free surface and near the ice. The combination of the two flow patterns caused lateral intrusion in the ice, instead of a uniform melting across ice surface. BOS measurements indicated presence of density gradients below the free surface of n-heptane and in regions near the ice block. These density gradients were created by local small-scale temperature gradients. The current experiments were conducted to explore the processes that influence the ice melting by immiscible liquid layers.






Combustion, Convection and Heat Transfer